After world war ii, britain accepted decolonization as an irresistible trend and began to establish selfgovernment in its colonies. The political engagement of a west african muslim community article pdf available in the international journal of african historical studies 462. Although decolonization might also hold economic, psychological, or cultural implications, the term here merely denotes a political transfer of power from the colonial power to the indigenous peoples. In the absence of written sources and monumental ruins in this region, the history of the early centuries of the modern era must be based primarily on archaeological excavations, the writing of early geographers and travelers, written in arabic and data derived from oral tradition. Jomo kenyatta was the leader of the nonviolent independence movement in kenya. Through the process of decolonization that began, in most african territories, at the close of world war ii, african leaders gained greater political power under european rule. Kenyatta of kenya, leopold sedar senghor and senegal. It is, however, true, he claims, that one can identify some broad trends along the lines of the diagnosis he makes. The challenge of decolonization in africa benjamin talton temple university. The decolonisation of africa in 1945, when the second world war ended, africa had only four independent states. What links here related changes upload file special pages permanent link page. The region of modern senegal was a part of the larger region called upper guinea by european traders. None of these papers, however, consider how economic incentives were shaped by current and perspective trade conditions.
The 3rd section examines the concept of decolonization. The end of the colonial period and the establishment during 195776 of all the former colonies as independent states was attributable both to a change in european attitudes toward africa and the possession of colonies and to an african reaction to colonial rule born of the economic and social changes it had. The declaration of principles by churchill and roosevelt in the atlantic charter in 1941, with its promise of selfdetermination and selfgovernment for all, heralded the end of european colonialism in africa. Cela est significatif dans le cas du senegal qui obtint lindependance, conjointement. Because it is a timepast, timepresent hybrid, decolonisation exercises on contemporary historians. Jan 25, 2015 decolonisation of africa country independence date prior ruling country liberia, republic of 26 july 1847 south africa, republic of 31 may 1910 britain egypt, arab republic of 28 february 1922 britain ethiopia, peoples democratic republic of 5 may 1941 italy libya socialist peoples libyan arab jamahiriya 24 december 1951 britain sudan, democratic republic. However, it was established shortly after decolonization and many of its first. Section 2 provides an overview of the economics of colonialism, and introduces my argument. Sudan became a republic and did not join the financial and diplomatic club of former imperial dominions that were becoming a britishled commonwealth of nations. It captured the imagination of a new generation of idealists who enthusiastically proclaimed their belief in racial equality and individual liberty.
Sahara was a question of decolonization which remained to be completed by. Innovation capacity and knowledge absorption are recognized in the literature as two fundamental enablers to achieve growth through innovation. Decolonization of asia and africa, 19451960 19451952. Chapter 33 the cold war and decolonization, 19451975 i. Ivory coast, mali, niger, senegal, togo, cameroon, central african republic, chad. Lhistoire politique et syndicale du senegal entre 1939 et 1960 est particulierement riche. Nationalism and labor movements in postwar africa frederick cooper university of michigan the triumph of independence movements over colonial rule in asia and africa is another one of those metanarratives that needs to be rethought. European powers divided the dark continent like a home made peach pie. Senegal officially the republic of senegal is a country in west africa. Decolonisation in british africa anthony greene anthony kirkgreene looks at the remarkably rapid end of empire of britain in africa, and argues that perspective and objectivity can now yield a useful stocktaking.
This study takes decolonisation as being the time during which several political formations were suggested and ideas for economic strategies forged. This study analyzes the process of decolonization in senegal and. The decolonization of africa took place in the midtolate 1950s to 1975, with sudden and radical regime changes on the continent as colonial governments made the transition to independent states. When sekou toure of guinea decided in 1958 to get out of french colonial. Africa ended up with the kind of decolonization it for the most part got. After world war ii western leaders perceived the soviet union as the center of a world revolutionary movement, while soviet leaders felt themselves surrounded by the western countries and their north atlantic treaty organization founded 1949. Copy of decolonization of africa by firdausi i ibrahim on prezi. Secondly, decolonization is understood as an open process which triggered structural. The liberation of africa from european rule followed on. Pdf decolonisation et construction nationale au senegal. Decolonization in the african continent is explored through the iconic figure. Western africa decolonization and the regaining of. The 4t1i section discusses decolonization within north america.
These old colonial empires knew that decolonization was a possibility, but did not think much of. In 1959 french sudan and senegal formed a union called the mali federation, taking its name from the empire of mali which. Harold macmillan, british prime minister, helped begin decolonization milestones. The history of senegal is commonly divided into a number of periods, encompassing the. In africa, the british decolonization was done gradually based on experiences in canada, south africa, and india smith 1978.
The meaning of decolonization is contested throughout africa and beyond, not just by historians and social scientists, but by all those caught up in the crises of the continent. It argues that the preeminence of the usa and india in the international movie marketplace translates into the colonization of both the. Decolonisation in british africa a level history at st. Technology transfer is based on knowledge absorption that is crucial in the innovation process. Decolonisation et construction nationale au senegal. He establishedorganized the kenya african union to end british rule in kenya in the 1950s and to gain independence and right to self. It will be seen that the liberation ofindigenous peoples in n.
But rapid and total decolonization did not solve the fundamental problem of sudan s deep division between north and south. This analysis focuses on the most powerful political actor, the main party on the senegalese side. Western africa western africa decolonization and the regaining of independence. Chapter 33 the cold war and decolonization, 19451975. Equally important and run even more important the importance was the fact that in the ranks of troops belonging to the antihitler coalition colonial powers especially britain and france, there were many people in africa. Referendum on status of new caledonia is an important step forward in the decolonization process, secretarygeneral antonio guterres says as special committee on decolonization begins annual session.
How homosexuality became unafrican the case of zimbabwe. The francophonie and decolonization leiden repository. European colonization the french established a dominant position along the coast of modern senegal by 1659, but because of the result of the seven years war, france was forced to give senegal to the british in 1763. African decolonization contemporary history series. In 1945, the 5th panafrican congress met and discussed the prospect of independence. Decolonization and the transformation of the church. In january 1947, leopold senghor, who was then representing senegal as a deputy in the. After world war two and the defeat of the axis powers, france and britain controlled most of africa. Frederick cooper gathers a vast range of archival sources in french and english to achieve a truly comparative study of colonial policy toward the recruitment, control, and institutionalization of african labor forces from the mid 1930s, when the labor question was first posed, to the late 1950s, when decolonization was well under way. The wind of change is blowing through this continent and, whether we like it or not, this growth of national consciousness is a political fact.
For senegal, this period began roughly after the second world war and ended in 1963, when the moderate forces had won against the more radical ones. The decolonization of africa was one of the turning points in the history of the postwar world. Africa, notably the twomonth long strike movement in senegal in 1946 and the. Decolonization policies and institutions in africa.
Decolonization and african society by frederick cooper. On the coast and in river estuaries of the senegal, saloum, gambia, and. In attendance were a number of leaders who would eventually lead their nations. Frederick cooper, le nationalisme et le mouvement ouvrier. It is the purpose of african decolonization to show that this living past pervades the present. Situation economique et sociale du senegal pdf in french. He came to power after the suppression of the mau mau army. Towards the decolonization of the african film by hyginus ekwuazi abstract this paper identifies the inalienable features which characterize the truly indigenous african film.823 1308 1098 905 1403 611 1449 1012 1210 61 884 843 905 84 361 1038 1251 1102 1538 642 260 524 1409 837 1246 983 650 441 720 1081 819 706 637 275 128 1384 743 125 1232 1011