Model of grammar optimality theory ot has been developed since the early nineties, by alan prince, paul smolensky, john mccarthy and others. Optimality theory is a development of generative grammar, a theory sharing its focus on formal description and quest for universal principles, on the basis of empirical research of linguistic typology and first language acquisition. It is argued that stratal ot is superior in modelling phonological processes that take place at the. The most general of these insights centers on the results available from the study of the syllable, a core concept in generative phonology after the sound pattern of english noam chomsky and morris halle, new york. A central hypothesis of rulebased generative phonology is that rules have. Optimality theory prince and smolensky 1993, mccarthy and prince 1993a,b turns markedness statements into the actual substance of grammars. Depending on how the constraints are ranked, outputs will be faithful to some features.
Kager s explanations are clear, and he does a god job walking you through the various topics. Papers presented at glow 1978 2002 including alternates and invited speakers. However, ot radically differs from earlier generative models in various ways. The first two chapters situate the research in its broader context, with an introduction by the editors providing a brief general tutorial on optimality theory.
A surface form is optimal if it incurs the least serious violations of a set of constraints, taking into account their hierarchical ranking. Scribd adalah situs bacaan dan penerbitan sosial terbesar di dunia. But in a language in which ident io nasal is dominated by both of the markedness constraints 41 and 42, any potential contrast of orality nasality in vowels will be fully neutralized, as is the case in allophonic variation. An introduction to optimal control ugo boscain benetto piccoli the aim of these notes is to give an introduction to the theory of optimal control for nite dimensional systems and in particular to the use of the pontryagin maximum principle towards the constructionof. Though originally developed from generative phonology, the principles of optimality theory have also been applied in studies of syntax, morphology, pragmatics, language change, and other areas. Optimality theory was introduced in the 1990s by linguists alan prince and paul smolensky optimality theory. It will provide a central outlet for the best new work by both established and younger scholars in this rapidly moving field. Given an underlying wordinitial consonant cluster, it is in conflict with max. In ot there is the possibility to combine the constraints onset. The universal set of constraints is on a par with the choir invisible. Kager 1999 gives an entrylevel introduction to ot, mccarthy 2001 surveys. Optimality theory on acquisition research, and this paper will therefore.
Having only done rule based phonology, i didnt find optimality theory to be at all intuitive at first. Advances in optimality theory is a new series designed to stimulate and promote research in this provocative new framework. This is an introduction to optimality theory, whose central idea i. Vowel hiatus is a dispreferred phenomenon in many languages. An initial version of this paper was read at the harvard. Dynamic ot optimality theory tableau generator for latex. Optimality theory thisisanintroductiontooptimalitytheory,thecentralideaofwhich isthatsurfaceformsoflanguagere. Optimality theory ot is an approach to linguistics that derives output forms from inputs on the assumption that there are many competing constraints on possible output forms. Spanish under the framework of stratal optimality theory ot rubach1997. Optimality theory kager excelente introducao a ot docsity. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Markedness is built into grammars in the form of universal output constraints.
These notes explain the procedures and assumptions behind a valuable technique using in studying adaptation called optimality theory. One point, already mentioned above, is the fact that ot has incorporated notions like markedness and output constraint which already played an important role in studies on child language phonology. In optimality theory prince and smolensky 2004, the constraint complexonset kager 1999 punishes complex onsets. Rene kagers textbook is one of the first to cover optimality theory ot, a declarative grammar framework that swiftly took over phonology after it was introduced. The focus is on phonology, which is where the theory thus far has had its greatest impact. For example, let there be a set of sorted sequences of the following lengths. This is an introduction to optimality theory, whose central idea is that surface forms of language reflect resolutions of conflicts between competing constraints. The idea of trying to merge the system of optimality theory with that of cognitive psychology was too appealing to ignore. Lecture 2 theory of linear programming linear programming program, linear, theorem on alternative, linear programming duality 2. The fundamental idea behind ot is that surface forms of language. Concepts unique to the theory, including emergence of the unmarked. Pdf optimality theory and phonological acquisition researchgate. Background linguistics, broadly speaking, explores all aspects of natural language.
Current linguistic theory takes the chomskyan view that there is a genetic predisposition. Optimality theory kager free ebook download as pdf file. Merging sequences by length is the same as joining trees by frequency in huffman coding. Surface opacity of metrical structure in optimality theory rutgers.
At appropriate points, kager distinguishes the different claims made by optimality theory and derivational theories. What is the universal set of constraints in optimality theory. Karttunen, rene kager, paul kiparsky, mike kenstowicz, ellis visch, andras kornai, akin. Optimality theory ot took centre stage in theoretical linguistics during the 1990s. A geometric introduction to ktheory daniel dugger contents preface 3 introduction 4 1. This article surveys the motivations for ot, its core principles, and the basics of analysis. Your book is focused on oldfashioned rewrite rules. For comments on a number of chapters, i am grateful to rene kager, and also mark harvey for. Pro map maker by domdom modified empure sizes for easier map making.
Firstly, to solve a optimal control problem, we have to change the constrained dynamic optimization problem into a unconstrained problem, and the consequent function is known as the hamiltonian function denoted. When vowel sequences arise through morphophonological concatenations in isindebele, hiatus may be resolved in one of three processes. This comprehensive survey provides an uptodate, critical overview of this widely debated topic, exploring and evaluating word order research carried out in four major theoretical frameworks linguistic typology, generative grammar, optimality theory and processingbased. See also simple merge, ideal merge, huffman coding, greedy algorithm. Optimality theory presented by ashour abdulaziz, eric dodson, jessica hanson, and teresa li overview introduction how to interpret ot historical development theory application pros and cons optimality theory central idea. It is traditionally described as having a mora as the unit of timing, with each mora taking up about the same length of time, so that the disyllabic.
Optimality theory, in common with much recent work, shifts the burden from the theory of. December 9, 2010 1 introduction this chapter discusses the relation between the minimalist program mp and optimality theory ot and will show that, contrary to popular belief, mp and ot are not inherently. Surface forms of language reflect resolutions of conflicts between competing demands or constraints. Minimalism and optimality theory hans broekhuis and ellen woolford to appear in the cambridge handbook of generative syntax final version. Pay particular attention to the critiques of optimality theory.
An optimality theory analysis of the stress and length patterns of hixkaryana is. Constraint interaction in generative grammar, 19932004. Mccarthy university of massachusetts amherst abstract. Lexicon and numeration, notion of features, feature checking and checking domains. Optimality theory makes two particular strong points for acquisition research. There are far too many candidates, and no consensus at all on what there is to be constrained, how it is to be constrained, and what to do about exceptions and counterexamples. A basic understanding of phonology and earlier rulebased derivational theories is assumed. Updated pdf pages with higher res character sheets from ffgs website using the same pdf style as found in the back of the core book, this resulted in a loss of the critical injury box in place of other distinguishing features. It also addresses some frequently asked questions about this theory and offers suggestions. Model theory and the content of ot constraints christopher potts geo. Optimality theory at the syntaxdiscourse interface. When the two words in 2 combine, the stress pattern on one of the word alters.
It espouses a serialist view of morphology that is rejected by most current phonologists. The rst order necessary condition in optimal control theory is known as the maximum principle, which was named by l. Notes on optimality theory college of the holy cross. Archangeli 1997, tesar, grimshaw, and prince 1999, kager 1999. I used this a few years back in a graduate level phonology course. The basic assumptions of this constraintbased theory as a general model of grammar are first outlined, with formal notation being defined and illustrated. As a general model, optimality theory has wide applications to a variety of areas in cognitive science, and especially to those related to language. Kager says that unevenlamb is a cover constraint combining the effects of. The central idea of optimality theory ot is that surface forms of language reflect resolutions of conflicts between competing demands or constraints. Krueger, john 1962 yakut manual uralic and altaic series vol 21 indiana university. The prevailing nonsequential approach to phonology, the optimality theory, ot, is based not on rewrite rules but on constraints. Pullum university of california, santa cruz we develop an extensible description logic for stating the content of optimalitytheoretic constraints in phonology, and specify a class of structures for interpreting it. Theory, in which markedness has no substantive status in the grammar, but functions as an external system of annotations on parameter values, evaluating a grammars complexity. Optimality theory is a general model of how grammars are structured.
Its basic tenets were both familiar and revolutionary, and this has doubtless contributed to its success. Word order is one of the major properties on which languages are compared and its study is fundamental to linguistics. This chapter first presents the basic assumptions of optimality theory in section 3. The data show an interesting double repair of the coda s taking place at word edges. Introduction the general research question which this paper addresses is the proper treatment of cases of opacity in which the triggering or blocking context for a phonological process is found in a paradigmatically related word.18 544 382 349 1502 1078 1436 107 597 1124 1535 973 222 418 819 528 327 222 275 681 1046 874 231 378 617 692 1313 356 206 1275 1214 1312 416 744 1190 1211 299 1019